WANT A PRETERIST ANSWER TO A SPECIFIC END TIME PROPHECY?
WHAT IS PRETERISM? Preterism, Preterist Theology and the Preterist view of eschatology is the Christian belief that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled.
Critics of preterism expose their ignorance of Roman history by their criticisms. These people claim that such and such a prophecy has not occurred–meanwhile Roman historical records say that it has!
NEW EVIDENCE ADDED TO EXISTING COMMENTARY AND ARTICLES ALMOST DAILY!
The following may seem unbelievable. However, all information is taken from unbiased historical records and is easily verifiable.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF PRETERISM: FULL PRETERISM AND PARTIAL PRETERISM
Full Preterism is the belief that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled.
Partial Preterism is the belief that some end time prophecies have been fulfilled. Most Biblical scholars are partial preterists to varying degrees. Though the following commentary will show that all end time prophecies have been fulfilled, this is not evidence against the partial preterist view. Perhaps the first century events that fulfilled all end time prophecies were types or shadows pointing to the ultimate fulfillment of these predictions again in the distant future?
MOSTLY JUST APOCALYPTIC RHETORIC AND CRYPTIC SYMBOLISM?
HAVE ALL BIBLE END TIME PROPHECIES INCLUDING REVELATION REALLY BEEN FULFILLED IN THE JEWISH WAR?
Christians often assume that there is no historical record that
Biblical scholars have long known that Gog is in Turkey. Interestingly, there was a LITERAL 1000 year reign of Christianity in Israel from the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) to the conquest of Israel by the Turks (A.D. 1071) and the resulting crusades, the Battle of Gog and Magog (A.D.1095).
However, all four events ARE recorded by Roman historians alongside a multitude of supernatural phenomena that appear to FULFILL ALL BIBLICAL END TIME PROPHECIES DOWN TO THE SMALLEST DETAILS and yet seem to be either entirely unknown to or ignored by Biblical scholars.
WHY IS JESUS NOT RULING ON EARTH?
In A.D. 33 day became night, and in A.D. 66 night became day. These two miracles broke the covenant of Jeremiah 33:20-21. Thus the Messiah would not rule physically on an earthly throne. Instead, Christ rules the world at the right hand of God in heaven (Heb 8:1): “[T]he Most High does not live in houses made by men. . . . ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool (Acts 7:48-49).’” The Messianic kingdom is called the kingdom of heaven in the Gospels because it is centered in heaven. It is here that the saints also ultimately rule over heaven and earth with Christ on His heavenly throne (Rev 3:21) while experiencing a blissful, loving existence with Christ after death.
WHAT ABOUT THE NEW JERUSALEM?
The New Jerusalem is the church. Because it is present in both heaven and earth and because the church is destined for heaven, the church is described in the likeness of the Jerusalem that is in heaven mentioned in Hebrews 12:22 and Galatians 4:26. Testimony from near-death experiences suggests that it exists right now!
There is CERTAINLY no Christian View of Eschatology (End Time Prophecy) that has more Biblical and Historical Evidence than Preterism.
THE FOLLOWING ONLY SCRATCHES THE SURFACE OF THE CUMULATIVE EVIDENCE.
Preterist Background Info
Preterist View of the Beast With the Wounded Head
The Book of Revelation is Apocalyptic language. This literary style is ancient poetry that wraps-up real events in poetic symbolism to give these events meaning. For example, the fact that the beast is said to rise out of the sea (Rev. 13:1) and earth (Rev. 13:11) does not just denote where the beast (Rome) is situated. Throughout Revelation and much of the rest of the Bible sea and Abyss signify both foreign nations and the Abyss (the realm of the dead) at the same time (see In the Bible “Earth” Signifies the Specific Land Addressed While “Sea” Symbolizes Foreign Nations and The Poetic Biblical Link Between “Sea” and “Abyss”). Thus the beast seen rising out of the earth (soil) and Abyss (realm of the dead) is meant as a double entendre also pointing to the resurrection of the beast. But before addressing how the beast rises from the dead, let us first see how it was wounded.
“One of the heads of the beast had a fatal wound …” (Rev. 13:3)
As shown in the PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION at the bottom of this page there appear to be NO BIBLE PROPHECIES YET TO BE FULFILLED.
Preterist Explanation of the Beast Whose Wound Had Been Healed
“ . . . but the fatal wound had been healed.” (Rev. 13:3)
Preterism and the Beast Whose Wound Had Been Healed, the Beast out of the Earth, the False Prophet and the Lawless One
Vespasian and Titus are the 2 generals who waged war on Israel for three and a half years from A.D.67 to A.D. 70. In the midst of this war Vespasian became emperor while his son was also given the title “Caesar” at his father’s coronation. Caesar Titus was then sent back to Israel to finish the war. Under Titus’ command Jerusalem and its Temple were destroyed. No 2 men had a more active role in the eschaton than Titus and Vespasian thus other than Jesus no one else is mentioned more in end time prophecy.
TITUS (VESPASIAN’S SON)
In Wars of the Jews, Titus and Vespasian are almost portrayed as saints not unlike the way Nero was depicted while still alive. Wars of the Jews was published in A.D. 75 (during Vespasian’s reign) and was written by Josephus, an eyewitness of the war and close friend of Vespasian and Titus who even adopted their name “Flavius.” Josephus was commissioned by Vespasian to write this history of the Jewish War as propaganda as Vespasian feared assassination, a fate that befell his 3 predecessors. Thus Wars celebrates the Flavian victory in Palestine so as to increase public support and solidify their rule. Therefore any details unpalatable to the Roman mob would, of course, be left out. Though present in other historical accounts, some of the information below is understandably absent from Wars.
“It set up an image of the beast who was wounded by the sword and yet lived.” (Rev. 13:14)
“He sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.” (2 Thess. 2:4)
FULFILLED ESCHATOLOGY AND THE BEAST OUT OF THE EARTH CONTINUED . . .
TITUS LITERALLY FULFILLED REVELATION 13:15!
“The 2nd beast was given power to give breath to the image of the 1st beast, so that it could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be killed.” (Rev. 13:15)
PRETERISM AND THE ABOMNATION THAT CAUSES DESOLATION
The eschatological abomination that causes desolation is the Roman armies with their ensigns that literally caused the desolation of Israel. Josephus says the ensigns were an ABOMINATION to Jews (Ant. 18.3.1; 18.5.3).
The people of the PRINCE will DESTROY THE CITY AND SANCTUARY. The end will come like a flood: WAR will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed. He will confirm a covenant for one ‘7.’ In the MIDDLE OF THE ‘7’ HE WILL PUT AN END TO SACRIFICE AND OFFERING. And on A WING OF THE TEMPLE HE WILL SET UP AN ABOMINATION THAT CAUSES DESOLATION. (Dan 9:26-27)
REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY AND THE BEAST OUT OF THE EARTH CONTINUED . . .
“And it performed great signs, even CAUSING FIRE TO COME DOWN FROM HEAVEN to the earth in view of men.” (Rev. 13:13)
In 1 Kings 18 Elijah calls down fire from heaven before ordering all who would not worship YHWH to be killed. Like the prophet Elijah, Titus (the false prophet of Revelation 19:20) also calls down fire from heaven before ordering all who would not worship Caesar to be killed (Wars 6.6.3.) This act qualifies Titus as a false prophet per Dt. 13:1-5. Well illustrating the poetic depth of Rev, this “fire from heaven” symbolizes Rome in at least 3 complimentary ways.
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE MARK OF THE BEAST?
(It’s not JUST a spiritual mark)
The numerical values of the letters of the names of the TRINITY of the beast; Caesar NERO (A.D. 54-68) VESPASIAN (A.D. 69-79) and TITUS (A.D. 79-81); each add up to 666.
“ It FORCED all to receive a mark on their right hand or forehead, SO THAT THEY COULD NOT BUY OR SELL UNLESS THEY HAD THE MARK, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name. Let the person who has insight calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. That number is 666.” (Rev. 13:16-18)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON DANIEL 7: THE LITTLE HORN IS ALSO CAESAR TITUS
“As for the 10 horns, out of this kingdom 10 kings will arise; and another will arise after them, he will be different from the previous ones and will subdue 3 kings.” (Dan 7:24)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON THE LITTLE HORN, CAESAR TITUS
“This horn MADE WAR WITH THE SAINTS, and prevailed.” (Dan 7:21)
“He will SPEAK AGAINST THE MOST HIGH.” (Dan 7:25)
“The beast was given authority for 42 MTHS. . . . And he opened his mouth to BLASPHEME GOD AND HIS TABERNACLE.” (Rev. 13:5-6)
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE LITTLE HORN, CAESAR TITUS
PRETERIST VIEW OF REVELATION 9: THE LOCUST ARMY UNDER APOLLYON (LIKE THE BEAST OUT OF THE EARTH) IS THE ROMAN ARMY IN ISRAEL.
As stated above, Rev. is Apocalyptic literature which is ancient poetry full of double and triple entendres. This fact is well illustrated in Rev. 9. Each Roman legion carried and was represented by a Zodiac sign. Using this fact as a clue to the Roman identity of this army, Rev. 9 then goes a step further describing Titus’ army using ONLY attributes of the Zodiac visible on Passover when Jerusalem killed Jesus and Titus began his attack on the city. This Zodiac symbolism not only describes Titus’ soldiers, it also hints at their Roman identity while also pointing to the time of their attack!
As shown in the PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION below there appear to be NO BIBLE PROPHECIES YET TO BE FULFILLED.
See the Red Links at the BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE for a Much More In-Depth REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY on All Major End Time Prophecies
THE TWO WITNESSES
The miraculous powers the 2 witnesses possess is a natural consequence of their identity which is repeatedly implied throughout Rev 11.
PRETERIST VIEW OF THE WHORE OF BABYLON
THE WHORE OF BABYLON EXPLAINED! A PRETERIST COMMENTARY
JERUSALEM HAS THE MARK OF THE BEAST WHICH IS WHY “BABYLON THE GREAT” IS WRITTEN ON HER “FOREHEAD.”
The fact that Jerusalem has the “name of the beast” (Babylon the Great) on her “forehead” in Rev 17:5 means that she has the mark of the beast. Rev 13:16-17 says that the mark of the beast is on the “forehead” and is “the name of the beast.” This mark is the opposite of that mentioned in Revelation 14:1: “[A]nd before me was the Lamb . . . and with him 144,000 WHO HAD HIS NAME and his Father’s name WRITTEN ON THEIR FOREHEADS.” The saints have the “name” of their king on their “forehead” because they are one with Christ (John 17:20-23) which is why they are called the “Body of Christ.” (Eph 5:23) The saints become one with Christ through the marriage between Christ and the New Jerusalem in Rev 21:2. The saints are the New Jerusalem as they are also marked with the name of this city on their foreheads: “I will write on them the name of God AND THE NAME OF GOD’S CITY, THE NEW JERUSALEM.” (Rev 3:12) Through this marriage, the saints become one with Christ as a wife becomes one with her husband. (Eph 5:31) In the same way that the church becomes one body and one flesh with Christ and is thus called by Christ’s name (the Body of Christ) through marriage (Rev 21:2), apostate Jerusalem also became one with Babylon and is called by this name (Rev 17:5) through adultery (1 Cor 6:16). And as the saints are marked with the name of their true king (Rev 14:1) and the city of their true citizenship regardless of where they live (Rev 3:12), apostate Jerusalem is also labeled with the name of her true king and his city, “BABYLON THE GREAT,” in Revelation 17:5. Jerusalem’s true king is Caesar according to Jn 19:15: “We have no king but Caesar!”
JERUSALEM (THE WHORE OF BABYLON) IS ALSO LITERALY EMBODIED BY THE FIRSTBORN PRINCESS OF JUDAEA AND SAMARIA: QUEEN BERENICE.
Throughout Revelation each kingdom is embodied by its king or quintessential human representative. For ex., the beast (Rome) is embodied by the Caesars and the heavenly Jerusalem (Gal 4:26) is embodied by the Virgin Mary in Rev 12:1-4. Likewise, the whore of Babylon is embodied by the famously beautiful and sexually scandalous Queen Berenice, the firstborn daughter of Agrippa I (king of Judaea and Samaria). Rev 17-18 were also fulfilled in the life of Berenice, the human embodiment of adulterous Jerusalem.
SURPRISING EVIDENCE THAT JERUSALEM AND HER PRINCESS ARE THE WHORE OF BABYLON
Babylon conquered Jerusalem in the 6th century B.C. and astrology, their system of divining the future using the stars, permeated Israel and Rome. In Rev God uses the constellations of ancient Babylon to convey the fate of spiritual Babylon. Thus many of the symbols in Rev were visible to John’s audience. In Gn 1:14, “God said, ‘Let there be lights in the sky . . . AND LET THEM SERVE AS SIGNS.’” Then concerning the end, Jesus says, “There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars (Lk 21:25).” Though John refers to Babylonian constellations, he does not violate Dt 4:19. John sees the heavenly bodies as signs, not as deities.
PRETERISM AND THE 10 HORNS
The beast of Rev 13:1-10 is the 4th beast of Dan 7. This beast is a chimera composed of the other 3 beasts thus it resembles a leopard (Greece), has bear feet (Medo-Persia), and a lion’s mouth (Babylon). (Rev 13:2) This beast also has the horns of Israel: The whore of Babylon (Jerusalem) is seated on seven heads (Rev 17:9) this is also where the 10 horns are (Rev 13:1) implying that the ten horns are Jewish (the 10 Zealot leaders). I believe that the 10 horns are also the 10 toes of the statue of Dan 2 which is a mixture of iron and clay. (Da 2:41) Clay represents Israel. (Is 64:8, Jr 18:6)
A FULFILLED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON DANIEL 2:
DANIEL 2:35 PROVES THAT THE SHATTERING OF THE STATUE IS NOT ABOUT THE FALL OF ROME
In the statue of Dan 2 Babylon is the gold head; Medo-Persia, the silver chest; Greece, the bronze belly; and Rome, the iron legs. The feet of the statue are a mixture of iron (Rome) and clay (Israel). In Dan 2:34 a rock hits the statue on its feet and shatters it. Jesus says that this rock of Dan 2:34 representing himself would hit Israel (Mt 21:43-45) implying that the clay is Israel as it often is (Is 64:8, Jr 18:6). In A.D. 66 Israel (the clay) revolted against Rome (the iron): “And just as you saw the iron mixed with baked clay, so the people will be a mixture and will not remain united, any more than iron mixes with clay. (Dan 2:43)
A REALIZED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 6:
THE SEVEN SEALS
I believe the 4 horsemen of Rev 6 are heavenly beings with human counterparts. Could the 4 horsemen be the 4 kings who supplied auxiliary troops–Antiochus, Agrippa II, Sohemus and Malchus? (Wars 3.4.2.) Vespasian was also aided by 4 generals. (Midrash Rabbah Lam 1.31) It is also possible that Vespasian and/or Titus are 1 or 2 of the horsemen as the 1st rider was “given a crown” (Rev 6:2) and both men became Caesar in the middle of the war.
A PRETERIST ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON THE SEVEN SEALS
A COVENANT ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 8:
THE SEVEN TRUMPETS
With Israel in revolt, Rome 1st responded with the 12th legion in Tishri, a month beginning with the Feast of Trumpets—also called the Day of Judgment, on this day TRUMPETS are blown. Thus began the 7 trumpets and Jewish War!
A COVENANT ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION:
THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
The 7 trumpets and bowls were fulfilled in basically the same events. The 1st bowl is the 1st trumpet; the 2nd bowl, the 2nd trumpet and so on. As Apocalyptic literature, Rev is ancient poetry. Here real events are poetically depicted as plagues of Exodus fulfilling Dt 28:58-60. The 1st trumpet/bowl is the plague of hail and boils; the 2nd and 3rd, the plague of blood; the 4th and 5th, the plague of locusts, darkness and boils; the 6th, the plague of frogs; and the 7th, the plague of hail again.
“The 1st angel sounded his trumpet, and there came HAIL AND FIRE MIXED WITH BLOOD HURLED DOWN TO THE EARTH. A 3rd OF THE EARTH, TREES AND ALL THE GREEN GRASS WAS BURNED.” (Rev 8:7)
A PRETERIST ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION: THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“Then there will be distress, unequaled from the beginning of the world until now—and never equaled again.” (Mt 24:21) What about WW2? Jesus’ spoke to Israelites and this was the worst war they ever faced. Concerning the fall of Jerusalem, Josephus says, “[N]either, did any other city ever suffer such miseries . . . from the beginning of the world.” (Wars 5.10.5) Mt 24:21 is not meant to be interpreted globally or it would contradict what is said about the 10th plague of Exodus: “There shall be a great cry throughout Egypt, such as was none like it, nor ever shall be.” (Ex 11:6)
“Something like a huge MOUNTAIN WAS THROWN INTO THE SEA. A 3rd of the SEA TURNED TO BLOOD, a 3rd of the creatures in the sea died, and a 3rd of the SHIPS WERE DESTROYED.” (Rev 8:8-9)
“A GREAT STAR FELL FROM THE SKY on a 3rd of the rivers and springs—the name of the star is WORMWOOD.” (Rev 8:10-11)
A FULFILLED ESCHATOLOGY COMMENTARY ON REVELATION: THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“THE RIVERS AND SPRINGS OF WATER BECAME BLOOD.” (Rev 16:4)
“They shed the blood of your saints and YOU HAVE GIVEN THEM BLOOD TO DRINK.” (Rev 16:6)
“THE SUN SCORCHED PEOPLE. THEY WERE SEARED BY THE INTENSE HEAT.” (Rev 16:8-9)
PRETERISM AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“I heard an EAGLE call: ‘WOE! WOE! WOE TO THE PEOPLE OF THE EARTH, because of the trumpets about to be sounded!” (Rev 8:13)
The 5th angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the BEAST, AND HIS KINGDOM WAS PLUNGED INTO DARKNESS. (Rev 16:10)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“The 6th angel poured his bowl on the EUPHRATES, AND IT DRIED UP FOR THE KINGS OF THE EAST.” (Rev 16:12)
“DEMONS PERFORMED MIRACULOUS SIGNS, and they went to the kings of the world, TO GATHER THEM FOR BATTLE.” (Rev 16:14)
“THEY GATHERED THE KINGS TOGETHER TO THE PLACE that in Hebrew is CALLED ARMAGEDDON.” (Rev 16:16)
PRETERISM AND THE SEVEN TRUMPETS AND BOWLS
“Then came LIGHTNING, THUNDER and an EARTHQUAKE.” (Rev 16:18)
THE GREAT CITY SPLIT INTO 3 PARTS AND THE CITIES OF THE NATIONS COLLAPSED. (Rev 16:19)
“And huge HAILSTONES EACH WEIGHING A TALENT [100 lbs] FELL UPON MEN.” (Rev 16:21)
PRETERIST EXPLANATION OF THE BLOOD THAT FLOWS UP TO A HORSE’S BRIDLE FOR 1,600 STADIA
Hyperbole like that in Rev 14:20 is common in the Bible and Jewish historical literature: “I will drench the land with your [Pharaoh’s] blood all the way to the mountains, and the ravines.” (Ezk 32:6) “Manasseh shed much innocent blood until he filled Jerusalem FROM ONE END TO ANOTHER.” (2 Ki 21:16) There are 3 different units of stadia. The one used in Rev is the itinerary stade. 1,600 itinerary stadia is 251.2 km, the exact length of the Jordan River (and Palestine itself). Thus Rev 14:20 echoes 2 Ki 21:16 in which blood fills the land “from one end to another.” Josephus uses similar language concerning the Jewish War: “Galilee was all over filled with fire and blood.”
“BLOOD FLOWED AS HIGH AS THE HORSES’ BRIDLES FOR 1,600 STADIA.” (Rev 14:20)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON REVELATION 19
“There was A WHITE HORSE, WHOSE RIDER IS CALLED FAITHFUL AND TRUE. THE ARMIES OF HEAVEN FOLLOWED HIM, RIDING WHITE HORSES.” (Rev 19:11,14)
“An angel called to the BIRDS, “COME, EAT THE FLESH OF ALL PEOPLE.” (Rev 19:17-18)
“The beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war against the rider on the horse and his army.” (Rev 19:19)
PRETERIST EXPLANATION OF REVELATION 19
Wealthy Jews killed Jesus: “You [the rich] have condemned and murdered the innocent one [Christ], who was not opposing you.” (Jm 5:1-6; Lk 11:39, 16:13-15) It was also the rich who persecuted the saints. (Jm 2:1-7) These Jews used Jesus’ divine claims to legitimize His death (Mt 26:65-66) though they truly wanted Jesus dead to prevent a war with Rome. (Jn 11:47-50; 19:12) The Messiah was expected to rule over a sovereign Israel. Israel was a Roman province so if Israel made Jesus king this would trigger a war. A war would result in pillaging and destruction of property invariably leaving the rich penniless, also the Temple, the source of their income, could be destroyed. This is why the rich did not want Jesus to be king (Mt 2:1-3, Lk 19:27) it is also why, “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for the rich to enter the kingdom of God.” (Mt 19:24) 1 Ti 6:10 says, “The love of money is the root of all evil” as it was greed that caused the Jews to kill Jesus and His people and it was for this greed that led to murder that the Jews were punished at the end of the age. (Col 3:5-6; Rev 6:10-11; 17:6)
“The REST were killed by the SWORD from the mouth of the rider on the horse, and the birds ate their flesh.” (Rev 19:21)
PRETERIST COMMENTARY ON ZECHARIAH 14
Zc 14 was fulfilled in the Maccabean Wars of the 2nd century B.C. During this war the Maccabees successfully fought off the Seleucid Empire after Antiochus Epiphanies entered Jerusalem, desecrated its temple and forced the Jews to stop practicing the Law.
“I will gather ALL NATIONS to Jerusalem to fight against it; the city will be captured.” (Zc 14:2)
“Half the city will be exiled, but the rest will not be taken from it.” (Zc 14:2)
“THE MT OF OLIVES WILL BE SPLIT IN 2.” (Zc 14:4)
“Then the LORD will come, and all the holy ones with him.” (Zc 14:5)
“The LORD will fight against those nations.” (Zc 14:3)
“When evening comes, there will be light.” (Zc 14:6)
“But Jerusalem will be raised up and remain in its place.” (Zc 14:10)
“Their flesh will rot while they are still standing.” (Zc 14:12)
“Then all the nations that attacked Jerusalem will worship the LORD and celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles. If the EGYPTIANS do not take part, they will have no rain.” (Zc 14:16-18)
Apocalyptic prophecies were also fulfilled in Old Testament History much more literally than previously supposed
“If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the LORD does not take place or come true, that is a message the LORD has not spoken. That prophet has spoken presumptuously, so do not be alarmed (Deuteronomy 18:22).” Though Bible prophecy is often written in an apocalyptic or poetic style, Deuteronomy 18:22 clearly shows that Biblical prophecy is not empty rhetoric, but rather must have at least a literal core of truth to it so as to be recognizable and verifiable. If not, then Israel could not be expected to recognize its real and false prophets. The following Preterist commentary shows that even the most fantastic apocalyptic predictions–though often hyperbolic–were fulfilled in the Jewish War shockingly literally. This fact implies that apocalyptic predictions fulfilled in Old Testament history were also fulfilled in a similar manner. The following are the two most frequently cited examples used to interpret apocalyptic language purely symbolically:
How was every mountain lowered and every valley raised? How were the sun, moon and stars darkened?
Preterism also fixes two of Christianity’s biggest problems:
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