The True Identity of the Little Horn and the Literal Fulfillment of Daniel 7
Daniel 7: A Preterist Commentary: Summary and Highlights
In the following preterist commentary on Daniel 7, Daniel sees a vision of four beasts representing four empires. The first beast represents the Babylonian Empire; the second, the Medo-Persian Empire; the third, the Greek Empire; and the fourth, the Roman Empire. The fourth beast representing Rome has ten horns representing the first ten Caesars. The little horn that comes up after the ten in Daniel 7:24 that is different from the first ten is the eleventh Caesar—Titus, the son of the tenth Caesar, Vespasian. Vespasian and Titus were awarded the title Caesar at the same time. Though Caesar, Titus was not yet fully emperor at that time and is thus said to be “a little horn” (Daniel 7:8) that is “different from the earlier ones” (Daniel 7:24). The three horns or kings that fall before Titus, the eleventh horn, in v. 8 are Galba, Otho and Vitellius, the three Caesars that ruled in A.D. 69. Upon supplanting these three kings, Titus and Vespasian came to power at the same time since both were crowned Caesar simultaneously. Concerning the eleventh horn, Titus, Daniel 7:25 warns, “The saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time.” Immediately before Vespasian and Titus were crowned Caesar, they together led the Roman army in its war against Israel. “A time, times and half a time” is three and a half years, the interval between the arrival of Titus and Vespasian in Israel to lead the Roman legions to the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. The Babylonian Talmud records the many blasphemous things Titus said and did against the God of Israel in Fulfillment of v. 25: “He will speak against the Most High.” Furthermore, before Jerusalem fell, the Romans worshiped Titus and his father Vespasian in the holy Temple before Titus had it completely demolished in A.D. 70. By this act Titus was directly responsible for putting an end to the practice of the Law of Moses forever fulfilling the rest of Daniel 7:25: “[He will] change the set times and the laws [of Moses].” Titus and Vespasian also allowed the equivalent of a new Sanhedrin to be established in Yavneh. This new Sanhedrin was responsible for matters of the Law and fixing the holy calendar. In this way, Titus also tried “to change the set times and the laws.” For a detailed explanation of the literal fulfillment of every detail of every verse in this chapter see the following commentary on Daniel 7.
The following may seem unbelievable. However, all information is taken from unbiased historical records and is easily verifiable. Sources listed at the end.
The True Identity of the Little Horn and the Literal Fulfillment of Daniel 7
“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me were the four winds of heaven churning up the great sea. 3Four great beasts, each different from the others, came up out of the sea. 4“The first was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted from the ground so that it stood on two feet like a man, and the heart of a man was given to it. 5“And there before me was a second beast, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up and eat your fill of flesh!’ 6“After that, I looked, and there before me was another beast, one that looked like a leopard. And on its back it had four wings like those of a bird. This beast had four heads, and it was given authority to rule. 7“After that, in my vision at night I looked, and there before me was a fourth beast—terrifying and frightening and very powerful. It had large iron teeth; it crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the former beasts, and it had ten horns. 8“While I was thinking about the horns, there before me was another horn, a little one, which came up among them; and three of the first horns were uprooted before it. This horn had eyes like the eyes of a man and a mouth that spoke boastfully. 9“As I looked, “thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His clothing was as white as snow; the hair of his head was white like wool. His throne was flaming with fire, and its wheels were all ablaze. 10A river of fire was flowing, coming out from before him. Thousands upon thousands attended him; ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. The court was seated, and the books were opened. 11“Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire. 12(The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but were allowed to live for a period of time.) 13“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshipped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed. 15“I, Daniel, was troubled in spirit, and the visions that passed through my mind disturbed me. 16I approached one of those standing there and asked him the true meaning of all this. “So he told me and gave me the interpretation of these things: 17‘The four great beasts are four kingdoms that will rise from the earth.
Daniel 7:3 A Preterist Commentary: The Four Beasts are Four Empires.
The four beasts in Daniel’s vision symbolize the four Gentile empires that had conquered Israel before the arrival of the kingdom of God. According to v. 3 all four beasts rose-up out of the sea. In this chapter, as is also the case in the Book of Revelation, sea is used to symbolize the Gentile world (Revelation 17:15). See In the Bible “Earth” Signifies the Specific Land Addressed While “Sea” Symbolizes Foreign Nations.
Daniel 7:4 A Preterist Commentary: The First Beast is the Babylonian Empire.
The first is a lion with wings. This beast is a cherub or lamassu, and it represents the then present empire, Babylon. Cherubs were often depicted as winged bulls or lions that stood guard at the entrances of temples in ancient Mesopotamia. Ancient Jews used this term to describe those angels that stood in the presence of God (Isaiah 37:16, Ezekiel 9:3). In Daniel’s vision the cherub or lamassu becomes a man.
Daniel 7:5 A Preterist Commentary: The Second Beast is the Medo-Persian Empire.
The second beast resembles a bear. This is an appropriate symbol for the Medo-Persian Empire which crushed its enemies with brute strength. The fact that this bear “was raised up on one of its sides” represents the fact that the Persians rose to dominance over the Medes in this dual alliance. This point is also implied in Daniel 8:3 in which the ram with the two horns representing the Medo-Persian Empire has one horn longer than the other. The fact that one horn is longer than the other again represents the fact that Persians were the more prominent of the two allies.1 With a vast army, the second beast conquered Lydia, Babylon and Egypt represented in v. 5 by the three ribs in its mouth.2
Many interpreters see the four beasts of Daniel 7 as Babylon, Media, Persia and ultimately Greece. I disagree. I do not think that the Medo-Persian Empire should be divided into two separate empires. The Medes and Persians were allies that together toppled the Babylonian Empire. In Daniel 8 the prophet sees a vision of a two-horned ram defeated by a one-horned goat representing Greece. The angel Gabriel interprets this vision for Daniel. And in Daniel 8:20 says that the two horns of the ram represent “the kings of Media and Persia.” If these two allies are represented by the two horns of one animal in Daniel 8, why would Daniel represent the Medes and Persians as two different animals in Daniel 7?
Daniel 7:6 A Preterist Commentary: The Third Beast is the Greek Empire.
The third beast is a four-headed leopard. This is Greece. The leopard with its grace, speed and ferocity is the perfect metaphor for the small well-trained, well-equipped, and brilliantly led Greek army that supplanted Persia. After the death of Alexander the Great, the Greek Empire was divided into four kingdoms each ruled by one of Alexander’s four generals. The four generals are symbolized by the four heads of the leopard.3
Daniel 7:7 A Preterist Commentary: The Fourth Beast is the Roman Empire.
Described in greater detail in the Book of Revelation, the fourth empire is Rome, the seven-headed leviathan. As is echoed in Daniel 2, these kingdoms are supplanted by a fifth kingdom.
Daniel 7:13-14 A Preterist Commentary: The Fifth Kingdom is the Messianic Kingdom. What is the Messianic Kingdom according to the Bible?
At the coming of the fifth kingdom, Daniel foresees the heavenly coronation of the Jewish Messiah. The kingdom that Christ receives in Daniel 7:13-14 is the fifth kingdom–the Messianic kingdom. In the first century, the Messianic kingdom was believed to be an empire centered in Jerusalem that would extend throughout the known world. Throughout the Gospels, Jesus describes his kingdom, the Messianic kingdom, under the cryptic guise of the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven.4 Jesus gave His kingdom, the Messianic kingdom, these ambiguous titles because to speak openly and explicitly about the Messianic kingdom in Israel in the first century could mean instant death to both him and his followers. The client king, King Herod, and the Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate, would certainly never tolerate a rival to their throne nor would Tiberius Caesar whose authority was also threatened if the Messiah extended his kingdom throughout the world.
First century Israelites were correct. The Messianic kingdom was to be a world-wide kingdom centered in Jerusalem. However, what they did not know was that the throne of this kingdom was not in the Jerusalem on earth. The throne of this kingdom was to be in the Jerusalem that is in heaven. Galatians 4:26 states, “But the Jerusalem that is above is free, and she is our mother.” Hebrews 12:22 says, “But you have come to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly.” Notice that in Daniel 7:13-14 Jesus receives his kingdom in heaven, not on earth. The fact that Christ rules from a heavenly throne is pictured in Acts 8:55-56. Here Stephen sees Christ standing at the right hand of the Father in heaven.
As explained above, in order to effectively spread the Gospel in Israel for any significant length of time, Jesus had to speak about the Messianic kingdom under ambiguous titles and in symbolic parables in order to avoid alerting the murderous wrath of the civil authorities. Largely for this reason Jesus named his kingdom, the Messianic kingdom, the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven throughout his ministry. The kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven are synonymous terms that are used interchangeably in the Gospels. This kingdom, the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven, was present in both heaven and earth. Concerning the presence of the kingdom of heaven on earth, Jesus says the following in Luke 17:20-21:
Now having been questioned by the Pharisees as to when the kingdom of God was coming, He answered them and said, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or, ‘There it is!’ For behold, the kingdom of God is in your midst [is among you].
In Luke 17:20-21 one can see how the kingdom of God is present on earth with Jesus and his followers, the church. Notice that in v. 20-21, Jesus says, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or, ‘There it is!’” Jesus is saying that the Messianic kingdom, the kingdom of God, will not be a visible kingdom on earth. Instead, it will be a kingdom centered in heaven that extends to the earth as well. With a name like the kingdom of heaven, Jesus implies that His kingdom, the Messianic kingdom, is centered in heaven. This fact is confirmed in John 18:33-37:
Therefore Pilate entered again into the Praetorium, and summoned Jesus and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” Jesus answered, “Are you saying this on your own initiative, or did others tell you about Me?” Pilate answered, “I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered You to me; what have You done?” Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.” Therefore Pilate said to Him, “So You are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say correctly that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth.
In the verses above, Jesus implies that his kingdom, the Messianic kingdom also known as the kingdom of heaven, is centered in heaven. The fifth kingdom mentioned in Daniel 7:13-14 is this kingdom centered in heaven that also extends to the earth below in the form of the Christian church, the kingdom of heaven on earth.
Philippians 3:20 states that the saints have their citizenship in heaven: “But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ[.]” Thus it is a future existence in heaven with Christ at the time of the resurrection that is the hope of the first century Christian saints (whether they fully understood this at the time or not). As stated above; the fifth kingdom, the Messianic Kingdom; is centered in heaven where Christ rules in the “flesh.”
Just as Jesus rules the world from a heavenly throne, Jessie E. Mills, Jr. notes that the saints ultimately also rule the world from heaven after biological death and the subsequent resurrection to heaven (Galatians 4:1-7, Romans 8:16-17). This fact is made explicit in Revelation 2:10: “Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor’s crown.” Revelation 3:21 echoes this point: “To the one who is victorious, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne [in heaven], just as I was victorious and sat down with my Father on his throne [in heaven].”5 1 Corinthians 6:2-3 also implies that the saints rule in heaven after the resurrection. 1 Corinthians 6:2-3 reads, “Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? Do you not know that we will judge angels?” If the Lord’s people are to judge people and angels then this, of course, means that the saints are expected to rule in heaven. The fact that the saints rule the world from heaven after biological death is also implicit in Daniel 7:18, 22, 27:
“But the holy people of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will possess it forever—yes, for ever and ever (Daniel 7:18).’”
“until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the holy people of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom (Daniel 7:22).”
“Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of all the kingdoms under heaven will be handed over to the holy people of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him (Daniel 7:27).’”
But the fifth kingdom, the Messianic Kingdom also known as the kingdom of heaven, also exists on earth with the saints who are destined for heaven after death (Luke 17:20-21). As will be explained in detail below, the rule of the saints was not limited to heaven, it also spread to the earth with the Christianization of Israel and the rest of the Roman Empire.
A Covenant Eschatology Exposition and Commentary of Daniel 7:13-14: Was Daniel 7:13-14 Fulfilled during the Ascension or the Parousia?
Were vs. 13-14 fulfilled during Jesus’ ascension into heaven in Acts 1 or during the Parousia? Let us look at vs. 13-14 again:
“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshipped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.
Max King notes that according to the Septuagint the son of man is not depicted coming to or from the Ancient of Days but rather this figure is said to come as the Ancient of Days: “As the Ancient of days he came, and those standing around were present to him.”6 This rendering seems to suggest that vs. 13-14 were fulfilled at the Parousia. However, a good case could also be made that vs.13-14 were fulfilled during Jesus’ ascension. Ultimately it is unclear as a good case could be made for either view.7
18But the saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will posses it forever—yes, for ever and ever.’ 19“Then I wanted to know the true meaning of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others and most terrifying, with its iron teeth and bronze claws—the beast that crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left.
Preterist View, Interpretation and Commentary of Daniel 7:19: Roman Weaponry was made of Iron. The Iron Teeth of v. 19 symbolize Spears and Arrows as indicated in Psalms 57:4.
According to Psalms 57:4, teeth are a metaphor for spears and arrows: “even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows and their tongue a sharp sword.” Roman weaponry was largely made of iron. Therefore, the iron teeth of the beast in this verse may represent the spears and arrows of the Roman army. The rows of iron teeth of the Roman leviathan are best depicted in the phalanx. Notice how the Roman phalanx below looks like an open jaw with the rows of iron spears resembling the teeth of the upper and lower jaw:
A Fulfilled Eschatology Interpretation and Commentary of Daniel 7:19: The Bronze Claws, presumably Ten in Number, are the Ten Horns representing the Leaders of the Ten Auxiliary Cohorts dispatched with Titus and Vespasian to Conquer Israel.
The bronze claws seem to represent the bronze helmets worn by Roman soldiers. These claws, presumably ten in number, seem to signify the ten horns mentioned in the next verse. Head and horn are both Biblical metaphors for a ruler or king (Colossians 1:18; Revelation 17:12). These ten horns are the leaders of the ten army cohorts Suetonius says were sent with Vespasian to conquer Judea.8 They are also ten Caesars, of which Vespasian is the tenth.
20I also wanted to know about the ten horns on its head and about the other horn that came up, before which three of them fell—the horn that looked more imposing than the others and that had eyes and a mouth that spoke boastfully. 21As I watched, this horn was waging war against the saints and defeating them, 22until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom. 23“He gave me this explanation: ‘This fourth beast is a fourth kingdom that will appear on earth. It will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it. 24The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom.
Preterism Explained and Interpreted, A Commentary of Daniel 7:20-24: The Ten Horns are also Ten Caesars. Vespasian is the Tenth Caesar.
Before taking office, the first two kings of Israel were anointed with a horn filled with oil (1 Samuel 10:1, 16:1). Therefore, horns are often used throughout the Bible to symbolize kings as is exemplified in Revelation 17:12. The ten horns mentioned in this chapter are described in additional detail in the Book of Revelation. In Revelation 17:13 the ten horns are said to give their authority to the beast. As indicated in Revelation 13: A Preterist Commentary, the beast symbolizes Caesar and his kingdom, Rome. These ten horns are the leaders of the ten auxiliary cohorts dispatched with Vespasian and Titus when they were given command of the Roman army during the Jewish war with Rome.9 The leaders of auxiliary cohorts were often indigenous chieftains loyal to Rome. This idea is bolstered in Revelation 17:16 where the ten horns are said to be responsible for the death of the Whore of Babylon. The Whore of Babylon is Jerusalem which was ultimately destroyed by Titus Caesar in A.D. 70. Under Titus Caesar’s command, several Roman governors and client kings together led the Roman legions and auxiliary troops responsible for Jerusalem’s destruction.
A Realized Eschatology Exposition and Commentary of Daniel 7:20-21: The Horn that comes up after the First Ten is the Eleventh Caesar, Titus.
The ten horns are also ten Caesars. Jerusalem was destroyed during the reign of the tenth Caesar, Vespasian. The horn said to come up after the ten in Daniel 7:20 is an eleventh horn. This is the eleventh Caesar, Titus. Titus was Vespasian’s son and successor. Upon Vespasian’s coronation, Titus and Vespasian were both awarded the title Caesar at the exact same time.10 Titus was also given total command of the Roman army stationed in Israel. And it was under Titus’ leadership that Jerusalem was ultimately conquered and destroyed in fulfillment of Daniel 7:21: “[T]his horn was waging war against the saints and defeating them . . .”11
A Full Preterist View and Commentary of Daniel 7:21: Sulpicius Severus records Titus’ Desire during the Jewish War to put an End to the Religion of the Christians and Jews in fulfillment of Daniel 7:21: “[T]his horn was waging War against the Saints and defeating Them . . .”
Titus’ war against the saints is shown by his desire to destroy the Christian and Jewish religions. Titus intended to accomplish this by destroying God’s dwelling place, the temple in Jerusalem:
But others, on the contrary, disagreed–including Titus himself. They argued that the destruction of the Temple was a number one priority in order to destroy completely the religion of the Jews and the Christians: For although these religions are conflicting, they nevertheless developed from the same origins. The Christians arose from the Jews: With the root removed, the branch is easily killed (Sulpicius Severus says the following in Chronica 2:30.7).
Titus was partially successful. Though Titus did end the full practice of the Law of Moses forever by destroying the Temple, his attempts to annihilate Christianity were unsuccessful. In the quote above, one can see how “[T]his horn [Titus] was waging war against the saints and defeating them . . .”
In his account of the Jewish War, Josephus portrays Titus as an unwilling participant in the burning of the Temple. In this regard, Sulpicius Severus is almost certainly to be believed over Josephus. Titus’ unwillingness to destroy the Temple in The Wars of the Jews seems unreasonable since it could have later been used by the Jews as a fortress in future rebellions. Furthermore, Titus’ order to kill everyone in the city while the Temple lay burning makes his unwillingness to destroy a mere building shockingly peculiar. Titus’ fabricated unwillingness to destroy the Temple in Josephus’ writings is not surprising as Titus and Vespasian were Josephus’ patrons.
Vespasian feared assassination.12 And this fear was justified as the three Roman emperors who immediately preceded him suffered this fate. And just like these three men, Vespasian could not legitimize his rule by appealing to his family heritage as Vespasian was also not part of the Caesar family line. Thus Vespasian needed something to justify his right to rule in the eyes of the Roman people and used his military success in Palestine toward this end. Written in A.D. 75, just one or two years after the end of the Jewish War at the fall of Masada, The Wars of the Jews was a book commissioned by the Flavians to highlight their successes in the war in Palestine for the conspicuous purposes of political propaganda. In other words, this book was commissioned by the Flavians as a tool to bolster public support and galvanizing Vespasian’s right to rule which would naturally deter potential rebellions and usurpers and thus alleviate Vespasian’s understandable fear of assassination.13 And there was no better candidate to write this history than Josephus who needed no heavy persuasion in order to paint the Flavians in as favorable a light as possible as Josephus was an eyewitness to the war as well as one of Titus’ and Vespasian’s closest friends.14 Therefore, Josephus was both politically pressured and personally motivated to paint these two in as favorable light as possible. Thus, not surprisingly, in The Wars of the Jews, Titus and Vespasian are portrayed much more favorably than they are in Jewish and Christian tradition as is exemplified in this chapter.
A Preterist Interpretation, Explanation and Commentary of Daniel 7:21-25: The Saints of Daniel 7:21-25 appear to be Jews as the Christian Saints are Said to be Taken Care of for This SAME Period of Time in Revelation 12:13-16.
It is also possible that the “saints” mentioned in Daniel 7:21-22 were the Jews as a whole who were punished during the Jewish War. It is likely that as a Jew, Daniel would not have any reservation in labelling his fellow people “saints” as the Jews were God’s chosen people. This interpretation seems likely when comparing Daniel 7:21-22, 25 with Revelation 12:13-16:
As I watched, this horn was waging war against the saints and defeating them, until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom (Daniel 7:21-22). [Emphasis mine.]
The saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time (Daniel 7:25). [Emphasis mine.]
When the dragon saw that he had been hurled to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the wilderness, where she would be taken care of for a time, times and half a time, out of the serpent’s reach. Then from his mouth the serpent spewed water like a river, to overtake the woman and sweep her away with the torrent. But the earth helped the woman by opening its mouth and swallowing the river that the dragon had spewed out of his mouth. [Emphasis mine.]
Notice that the little horn is said to wage war against the saints and defeat them (Daniel 7:21-22) and that this was to be for “a time, times and half a time” (Daniel 7:25). Then in Revelation 12:13-16 the dragon pursues the Christian saints but they escape and are taken care of for “a time, times and half a time” while the earth (i.e. the people of the earth, Israel) take the brunt of the punishment. If the saints whom the little horn makes war with and defeats of Daniel 7:21-22, 25 are Christians, then there appears to be a contradiction between these vs. and Revelation 12:13-16 which depicts the earth swallowing the devil’s assault while the Christian saints are said to escape.
Perhaps the “saints” of Daniel 7:21-25 are the Jews who were punished during the Jewish War as a similar title seems to be applied to Jews even if they were wicked in Psalm 79:1-3? If the Jewish people as a whole are the saints of Daniel 7:21-25, then the saints who are said to possess the kingdom in Daniel 7:22 probably refers to Christians who are true spiritual Israel (Romans 2:28-29; 11; Galatians 6:15-16). The fact that the saints of Daniel 7:21-25 signify the Jews who were punished during the Jewish War becomes increasingly more likely in light of the fact that the war against the saints mentioned in Daniel 7 was to last “a time, times and half a time.” Though it shall be addressed more in v. 25 it is a matter of historical fact that Vespasian’s and Titus’ military campaign in Palestine lasted exactly three and a half years in fulfillment of the expression “a time, times and half a time.”
Preterism and Daniel 7 and 8: Who is the Little Horn?
There are many secular-minded commentators who see the little horn in this chapter as Antiochus Epiphanies. They argue that the little horn in this chapter is mentioned again in the following chapter, Daniel 8, where he is described in additional detail. Though I agree that the little horn of Daniel 8 is Antiochus Epiphanies, I cannot see how the little horn of Daniel 7 could be said to accurately describe Antiochus Epiphanies.
According to 1 and 2 Maccabees, Antiochus Epiphanies, like Caesar Titus according to Sulpicius Severus, tried to put an end to the practice of the Law. Antiochus Epiphanies did this by seizing the temple in Jerusalem, desecrating it, and forcing the Jews to disregard the customs of the Law while adopting Greek religion and customs. As is the case with the prophet Elijah who according to Malachi 4:5 was to return in power and spirit at end of the age, I believe the same can be said concerning Antiochus Epiphanies. I believe that Antiochus Epiphanies returned in power and spirit at the end of the age in Caesar Titus who also set up an abomination that causes desolation and ultimately succeeded where Antiochus Epiphanies failed by putting an end to the practice of the Law forever. I believe this notion adds an additional layer of depth to Revelation 17:8-3. Though as explained in the commentary on Revelation 17, the beast who once was now is not and yet will come signifies the rise of the Flavian Dynasty that restored peace and unity to the Roman Empire, this title also seems to me to implicitly point to a Caesar Titus/Antiochus Epiphanies connection. The beast who once was could also be said to be Antiochus Epiphanies while the beast who yet will come signifies his return in power and spirit as Caesar Titus.
After them another king will arise, different from the earlier ones; he will subdue three kings.
The “A.D. 70 Doctrine” View, Interpretation, Exposition and Commentary of Daniel 7:24: After Nero’s Death, Four Rivals fought to Become Caesar. The Flavians Beat Their Three Rivals in This Succession Struggle. The Three Kings are Galba, Otho and Vitellius, the Three Caesars that ruled in A.D. 69. Upon Usurping the Throne, Vespasian and Titus were awarded the Title Caesar at the same Time. Though Caesar, Titus was not yet fully Emperor and is thus “different from the earlier Ones.”
The reigns of the three kings mentioned in v. 24 were brief and sometimes overlapped each other such that at various points in A.D. 69 Rome had more than one emperor each of whom failed to recognize the other’s right to rule. These three kings are Galba, Otho and Vitellius, the three Caesars that ruled briefly in A.D. 69 before Vespasian, the tenth horn, usurped the throne at the end of that year. As already stated, Titus and Vespasian were awarded the title Caesar at the same time. Though also declared Caesar at the tenth Caesar’s coronation, Titus was not yet fully emperor of Rome since his father–Vespasian, the tenth Caesar–held this title. As the eleventh Caesar, Titus is the horn that comes up after the ten that is “different from the earlier ones.” He is “different from the earlier ones” because the previous ten horns are the first the ten rulers of Rome beginning with Julius Caesar; and at the time of Galba, Otho and Vitellius’ deaths, Titus, though given the title Caesar, was not yet fully emperor.15
In v. 24 the little horn is said to subdue three kings. It is often thought that this v. implies that the little horn was to be actively involved in subduing or killing the other three horns. However, this is not what is pictured or stated in the original languages. The word translated “subdue” in v. 24 is ONLY translated “subdue” in THIS verse. Everywhere else this word appears it is translated “humbled” or “humble.” The word translated “subdue” in this verse is shephel which means “to be low.” In the NIV translation quoted in this commentary, v. 24 seems to depict the little horn subduing three kings. However, in the original languages what this v. actually pictures is the little horn growing in size such that it stands above the other three horns as is previously indicated in v. 20: “and the meaning of the ten horns that were on its head and the other horn which came up, and before which three of them fell, namely, that horn which had eyes and a mouth uttering great boasts and which was larger in appearance than its associates [emphasis mine].”16 When the little horn increases in size so as to make the other horns look “to be low” it is not because the little horn has actively subdued these kings. Instead, the little horn makes these other horns look “low” because it becomes larger. The fact that the little horn grows in size to make the other horns look small by comparison is a common Biblical symbol of exaltation and humility. In the Bible to be high or raised-up is to be exalted and to be made low is to be humbled (Genesis 14:18; 1 Samuel 18:5; 2 Samuel 22:28; Job 5:11; 40:11; Psalm 18:27; 36:7; 49:2; 112:9; 136:23; 148:14; Proverbs 29:23; Ecclesiastes 10:6; Isaiah 2:9, 11, 17; 10:33; 14:8, 12; 23:9; 26:5; 52:13; Jeremiah 16:6; Ezekiel 17:14; 21:26; Dan 2:48; 5:19). The fact that the little horn grows in size to stand above the three previous horns paints a metaphorical picture of this “little” horn being more exalted and lofty than its three predecessors. This was fulfilled when the little horn, Titus, who had not yet became emperor was ultimately given the title Caesar at his father’s coronation and them later ultimately became emperor of Rome while Galba, Otho and Vitellius were all overthrown and murdered the year in which Titus’ father became emperor. The fact that Titus, the little horn, is called “little” in this chapter is as stated above because all the deeds attributed to him in Daniel 7 were performed by him prior to becoming the high and mighty emperor of Rome. However, Titus is exalted and thus metaphorically grows in size when he is given the title Caesar at Vespasian’s coronation and then after Vespasian’s death succeeds his father as the next emperor of Rome.
Nero Caesar did not name his successor so, not surprisingly, after his sudden death in June of A.D. 68 there was a succession struggle. After Nero’s death, four rivals fought each other to fill the emperor’s seat: Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. The fact that Titus humbles three kings refers to the fact that the Flavians; Vespasian, Titus and Domitian who were all declared Caesar at Vespasian’s coronation; succeeded in this succession struggle after the death of Nero and though Titus did not actively subdue any of these three kings himself, Titus had humbled his three rivals; Galba, Otho and Vitellius; by succeeding alongside his father in the succession struggle to become Rome’s new prince and next emperor.
25He will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints and try to change the set times and the laws. The saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time.
Preterist Eschatology and Commentary of Daniel 7:25: “A Time, Times and Half a Time” is Three and a Half Years, the Interval between the Arrival of Titus and Vespasian in Israel to lead the Roman army during the Jewish War to the Fall of Jerusalem.
“A time, times and half a time” is three and a half years. This is the interval between the arrival of Titus and Vespasian in Israel to lead the Roman army during the Jewish War in March of A.D. 67 to the fall of Jerusalem in September of A.D. 70. Rabbinic tradition confirms the fact that Titus and Vespasian assaulted Israel for three and a half years in the Midrash Rabbah Lamentations 1.31 and 1.40. According to the Midrash Rabbah Lamentations 1.31 and 1.40, Vespasian was expected to be punished in Gehenna for three and a half years because that was the length of time in which he besieged Israel. The handing over of the saints will be discussed below.17
A Preterist Exposition and Commentary of Daniel 7:25: Titus was likely Worshiped in the Temple in Jerusalem in Fulfillment of Daniel 7:25 and 2 Thessalonians 2:4.
While the temple burned, the Roman army under Titus’ direction set up the ensigns on the eastern gate of the temple and offered sacrifices to them in an outward display of worship. At this time, Caesar Titus was declared imperator; and according to Suetonius, many of his soldiers wanted to make him emperor.18 When his legions declared Titus emperor, Titus would have received all the divine accolades normally directed toward his father. Thus Titus would have been worshipped during this celebration as was customary in the imperial cult in fulfillment of 2 Thessalonians 2:4: “He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.”
Daniel 7:25 A Preterist Commentary: The Babylonian Talmud records the many Blasphemous Things Titus said and did against the God of Israel in Fulfillment of v. 25: “He will speak against the Most High.”
In this verse, the little horn is said to “speak against the Most High.” In Gittin 56b of the Babylonian Talmud, Titus is recorded to have said and done the following upon setting up the idolatrous ensigns in the temple in Jerusalem:
Vespasian sent Titus who said, “Where is their God, the rock in whom they trusted?” This was the wicked Titus who blasphemed and insulted Heaven. What did he do? He took a harlot by the hand and entered the Holy of Holies and spread out a scroll of the Law and committed a sin on it. He then took a sword and slashed the curtain. Miraculously blood spurted out, and he thought that he had slain God himself, as it says, “Thine adversaries have roared in the midst of thine assembly, they have set up their ensigns for signs. [. . . .]” Titus further took the curtain and shaped it like a basket and brought all the vessels of the Sanctuary and put them in it, and then put them on board ship to go and triumph with them in his city.
This, however, is not the only recorded instance in which Titus spoke and acted blasphemously against God. While on his way back to Rome Gittin 56b of the Babylonian Talmud also records Titus issue the following boastful challenge to the God of Israel: “If he is really mighty, let him come up on the dry land and fight with me.” In this blasphemous challenge, one can appreciate how Titus truly did “speak against the Most High” with “a mouth that spoke boastfully” as predicted in v. 8 and 25.
Daniel 7:25 A Preterist Commentary: The Midrash and Sulpicius Severus record Titus and Vespasian’s Desire to put an End to the Religion of the Christians and Jews during the Jewish War. After Titus Destroyed the Temple, He successfully changed “the Set Times and the Laws [of Moses].”
It would seem according to the Midrash that Vespasian’s actions during the Jewish War suggest that he intended to change the Law of Moses. In the Midrash, Rabbi Phineas quotes Rabbi Hoshaia saying that prior to the Jewish War there were 480 Synagogues in Jerusalem besides the Temple, and in “each there was an elementary school for Scripture and an advanced school for Mishnah, and Vespasian went up and destroyed all of them.”19
During the Jewish War, Titus also tried “to change the set times and the laws [of Moses].” Titus hoped to accomplish this by destroying the temple in Jerusalem. Sulpicius Severus says the following in Chronica 2:30.7:
But others, on the contrary, disagreed–including Titus himself. They argued that the destruction of the Temple was a number one priority in order to destroy completely the religion of the Jews and the Christians: For although these religions are conflicting, they nevertheless developed from the same origins. The Christians arose from the Jews: With the root removed, the branch is easily killed.
Titus’ desire to change the Law of Moses is also illustrated by the fact that according to Gittin 56b of the Babylonian Talmud, Titus “spread out a scroll of the Law and committed a sin on it[,]” “took a sword and slashed the [Temple] curtain[,]” and stole “all the vessels of the Sanctuary[.]” The little horn, Caesar Titus, then had the Temple completely demolished. Having destroyed the Temple, the little horn was successful in his intentions. A sign of the fulfillment of the Law, this event made it impossible for Christians and Jews to fully follow the Law of Moses. Thus, Titus did, in fact, change “the set times and the laws [of Moses].”
Titus was not content with just destroying the Temple. According to The Wars of the Jews 6.6.1, Titus also ordered “that [Temple] priests should perish with the house itself to which they belonged. So he ordered them to be put to death.” Did Titus have all the priest of the Temple killed in order to ensure that the customs of the Law would no longer be carried out? Regardless, as stated above by destroying the Temple, Titus did, in fact, change “the set times and the laws [of Moses].”
Daniel 7:25 A Preterist Commentary: Titus and Vespasian also allowed the Equivalent of a New Sanhedrin to be established in Yavneh. This New Sanhedrin was responsible for matters of the Law and fixing the Holy Calendar. In this way Titus also tried “to change the Set Times and the Laws.”
“Around the time that Titus was taking over the responsibilities of finishing the Jewish war from his father, the two of them allowed the equivalent of a new Sanhedrin to be established in the city of Yavneh (Jamnia).”20 The Sanhedrin exercised judicial and legal authority according the Law and was responsible for fixing the Jewish calendar. It was the role of the Sanhedrin to decide whether a month would be twenty-nine or thirty days long. They also decided when to add a thirteenth month in order to align their lunar calendar with a solar year such that holy festivals would fall on the appropriate seasons. After the Jewish War, Yavneh “became the spiritual center of the people, and the secret of its survival. Rabban Yochanan ben Zakkai reorganized the Sanhedrin, which fixed the date of each new month and the time of each leap year. From Yavneh he sent instructions to the scattered Jewish communities in matters of law and observance, and Jews from all over the Diaspora turned to Yavneh for answers and advice.”21 It was in this way that Titus tried “to change the set times.”
Daniel 7:25 A Preterist Commentary: Titus intended to Destroy Christianity and Judaism by Destroying the Temple. Titus’ Father, the Emperor Vespasian, ordered all Those of the Messiah’s Bloodline to Killed. In these and other ways, the Saints were handed over to the Beast.
Verse 25 says that the “saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time.” As stated above, Titus intended to destroy the religion of the Christians and Jews.22 It should also be noted that after the fall of Jerusalem, Titus’ father, the Emperor Vespasian, ordered all descendants of King David to be searched out and eradicated so that no one in the Messiah’s bloodline could rise up to contest his reign.23
26“‘But the court will sit, and his power will be taken away and completely destroyed forever. 27Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be handed over to the saints, the people of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will worship and obey him.’ 28“This is the end of the matter. I, Daniel, was deeply troubled by my thoughts, and my face turned pale, but I kept the matter to myself.”
Daniel 7:26-27 A Preterist Commentary: Daniel 7:27 is Fulfilled at the Resurrection of the Saints to Heaven. It is also Fulfilled on Earth.
As stated above, Christ rules the world from a heavenly throne. And as explained above, it is in heaven that the saints after experiencing biological death also ultimately rule with Christ in fulfillment of Daniel 7:27 (Philippians 3:20; Revelation 2:10; 3:21). But the fifth kingdom, the Messianic Kingdom also known as the kingdom of heaven, also exists on earth with the saints who are destined for heaven after death (Luke 17:20-21). As will be explained in detail below, the rule of the saints was not limited to heaven, it also spread to the earth with the Christianization of Israel and the rest of the Roman Empire.
Daniel 7:26-27 A Preterist Commentary: The Fifth Kingdom is a Spiritual Kingdom (Luke 17:20-21, 1 Corinthians 15:50). The Fifth Kingdom; Christianity, the Kingdom of God; took Firm Root at the Destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70 which Marked the Fulfillment of the Law and Establishment of the New Covenant. This occurred during the Reign of the Tenth Caesar, the Tenth Horn of the Ten-Horned Beast.
Verses 26-27 mention the shift in power from the fourth beast which has ten horns (Daniel 7:7) to the reign of the kingdom of God which is the church, the followers of Christ in heaven and earth. As explained in detail in the commentary on Daniel 2, the fifth kingdom is different from the previous four in that it is a spiritual kingdom. In Luke 17:20-21 Jesus says, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; nor will they say, “Look, here it is!’ or ‘There it is!’ For behold, the kingdom of heaven is in your midst.” The kingdom of God is the body of Christ representing Jesus and his people, the saints. This is why while in the presence of His disciples, Jesus says that “the kingdom of heaven is in your midst.” The spiritual and therefore unobservable nature of the kingdom of God is also echoed in 1 Corinthians 15:50: “[F]lesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God.” The church is also called a kingdom or nation in 1 Peter 2:9 and Matthew 21:43. (Matthew 21:43 reads, “Therefore I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people [nation] who will produce its fruit.” People is actually literally nation.)
When the Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70, this event marked the end of the Old Covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant; Christianity, the kingdom of God. After the Temple was destroyed it became impossible to fully follow the Law of Moses from that point on. This fact was the ultimate sign that Christianity, the New Covenant, had fulfilled and replaced the Law of Moses, the Old Covenant. The destruction of the Temple also made it possible for Christianity to flourish in Israel unimpeded. And as a result the people of Israel and especially Jerusalem grew to become almost exclusively Christian during the thousand years between the Jewish War and the First Crusade.
It must be emphasized that the destruction of the Temple occurred during the reign of the tenth Caesar, Vespasian. It was at this time that the fourth beast was killed: “Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire (Daniel 7:11).” This spiritual death of the beast marked the start of the reign of a spiritual kingdom.24
If the death of Rome in Daniel 7:11 is spiritual, then, of course, it follows that the “overthrow” of the little horn in Daniel 7:26-27 was also spiritual. In other words, if Greece, Medo-Persia and Babylon were all supplanted by the spiritual kingdom of God in A.D. 70, then it follows that the emperor of Rome would similarly be overthrown at this time as predicted in Daniel 7:26-27. For a detailed explanation of the compelling case for how the “overthrow” or “death” of the little horn or lawless one in A.D. 70 was spiritual in nature see the preterist commentary on 2 Thessalonians 2:1-9.
During or immediately after the reign of the tenth horn, the spiritual kingdom; Christianity, the kingdom of God; began to acquire full dominion. Daniel 7:7 explicitly indicates that the fourth beast had ten horns. If it is true that these ten horns are the first ten Caesars, then this fact implies that the beast which had ten horns would cease to exist after the tenth Caesar. Because after the death of the tenth horn, Vespasian, the beast would no longer have ten horns.
Perhaps one might argue that because eleven horns are mentioned in this vision, maybe the beast would be expected to continue to exist until the reign of the eleventh Caesar. However, though Titus, the eleventh horn, succeeded his father as emperor of Rome, Titus fulfilled all the above predictions prior to having become emperor. This is why Titus is called the “little horn” (Daniel 7:8) that is “different from the earlier ones” (Daniel 7:24). Titus is the little horn that is different from the other horns because while he had fulfilled all of the above predictions, Titus was not yet emperor.
Daniel 7:27 A Preterist Commentary: Christianity became the State Religion of Rome. The Saints Inherited the Kingdom.
It therefore does not appear to be a coincidence that the New Covenant, Christianity, took firm root during the reign of the tenth horn. From this point on Christianity continued to infiltrate pagan Rome like yeast through dough (Matthew 13:31-33) before eventually becoming the official religion of Rome. The saints had, in fact, inherited the kingdom in fulfillment of v. 27: “Then the sovereignty, power and greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be handed over to the saints, the people of the Most High.” Christianity spread throughout the Roman world. And in the beginning of the fourth century, Rome crowned its first Christian emperor. Shortly thereafter Christianity became the official state religion of Rome in fulfillment of v. 27. Here one can see how rulers truly worshiped and obeyed Christ in fulfillment of v. 27: “rulers will worship and obey him.”
**NOTE** This is a NEW website. If you liked this article share it, like us on Facebook and follow on Twitter. Thank You!
Interested in THE PRETERIST VIEW OF ESCHATOLOGY, or are you a PRETERIST struggling with a prophecy or verse? It DID happen just like the Bible says! If you liked this essay, see PRETERIST BIBLE COMMENTARY for a detailed explanation of the FULFILLMENT OF ALL MAJOR END TIME PROPHECIES IN THE BIBLE. The more unbelievable the prophecy, the more amazing and miraculous the fulfillment!
Also see Historical Evidence that Jesus was LITERALLY SEEN in the Clouds in the First Century. For an explanation of how the end of the age and its fulfillment during the Jewish War mirror Genesis 1-3; how the Bible teaches that the resurrection of the dead is a resurrection of heavenly bodies to heaven, not a resurrection of perfected earthly bodies; and how the resurrection is a mirror opposite of the fall see How the Jewish War and Resurrection to Heaven Mirror Genesis and the Fall; and How Preterism fixes the Age of the Earth Problem and unravels the Mysteries in Genesis.
Daniel 7: A Preterist Commentary: Conclusion
- Stephen R. Miller, Daniel, 198. Cited in Duncan W. McKenzie, Ph.D., The Antichrist and the Second Coming: A Preterist Examination Volume 1: Daniel and 2 Thessalonians (USA: Xulon Press, 2009), 108.
- John Phillips, Exploring the Book of Daniel, The John Phillips Commentary Series (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2004), 114.
- Ibid., 115.
- A careful comparison of the Gospels reveals that Jesus used these names interchangeably.
- Jessie E. Mills, Jr., Results of Fulfilled Prophecy, (Bradford, PA: International Preterist Association, Inc., 2001), 115, 143-44.
- Max R. King, The Spirit of Prophecy, (Colorado Springs: Bimillennial Press, 2002), 232.
Those who argue that Daniel 7:13-14 was fulfilled at the ascension will often cite Luke 19:11-15. In this parable Jesus clearly states that He was to go away to heaven to receive His kingdom before returning to enact judgment at the time of His Parousia. When Jesus ascends into heaven in a cloud to receive His kingdom (Daniel 7:13-14) appears to be witnessed in Acts 1:9-11. Here the disciples see Jesus rise up to heaven before being received by a cloud. This is exactly what is depicted in Daniel 7:13-14. In these vs. Jesus, the son of man, approaches the Father in heaven in a cloud. The fact that Jesus had been given dominion at this time is illustrated in Acts 7:56. In Acts 7:56 Stephen sees Jesus at the right hand of the Father implying that He had received dominion and power at that time.
Though Jesus appears to have been granted dominion over heaven and earth after His ascension, I believe that Jesus’ dominion may not have fully been established until Satan had been cast out of heaven. Revelation 12 explicitly indicates that during the first century, Satan’s throne was in heaven. 2 Corinthians 4:4 echoes this point by calling the devil the “god of this age”: “The god of this age [Satan] has blinded the minds of unbelievers . . .” Satan is called the God or prince of this world or the god of this age in several places throughout the Bible including Ephesians 2:2; John 12:31; and 14:31;16:11. John 12:31 states, “Now is the time for judgment on this world; now the prince of this world will be driven out.” If Satan was the God of the Old Covenant Age and his throne was in heaven at that time, how could Jesus have acquired all dominion and power until Satan was finally cast out of heaven? Satan is finally cast out of heaven during a war in heaven according to Revelation 12:7-10. Interestingly, a vision of a war in heaven was seen at the start of the Jewish War in A.D. 66, this vision of a war in heaven implies that Revelation 12:7-10 was fulfilled at that time. (Josephus The Wars of the Jews 6.5.3, Tacitus The Histories 5.13.) Interestingly, Jesus appears to have made an appearance in the clouds of heaven at exactly that time. For details see Jesus, the Son of Man, was Seen in the Clouds in A.D. 66.
What about 1 Corinthians 15:24-28?
Then the end will come, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father after he has destroyed all dominion, authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is death. For he “has put everything under his feet.” Now when it says that “everything” has been put under him, it is clear that this does not include God himself, who put everything under Christ. When he has done this, then the Son himself will be made subject to him who put everything under him, so that God may be all in all.
I believe that the “dominion, authority and power” that Jesus destroys in v. 24 is the Devil and his power over death (Hebrews 2:14). Once this feat is accomplished and Christ hands the kingdom over to the Father, then His dominion under the Father is firmly established and uncontested.
Though Daniel 7:13-14 may have been fulfilled upon Jesus’ ascension, I believe there is a way in which these verses also seem to point to the Parousia. Acts 1:11 indicates that the Parousia was to bear a strong resemblance to the ascension. After the disciples saw Jesus rise up to heaven in a cloud, an angel told them, “This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven (Acts 1:11).” In other words, at least some aspect of the Parousia would mirror the ascension. I believe that an event exactly like what is described in Acts 1:9-11 occurred again during the Parousia of A.D. 70. It is this event which so closely resembles the ascension that may also be depicted in vs. 13-14 in a sort of secondary fulfillment. For Biblical evidence that a man, presumably Jesus, visibly rose up to heaven before being obscured by a cloud in A.D. 70 see the preterist commentary on Revelation 11.
- Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 10.4.
- Cassius Dio Roman History 66.1.
- See the preterist commentary on Revelation 12:15-16.
- Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 10.7; Tacitus The Histories 4. 81-82. When Vespasian entered the Temple of Serapis in order to inquire about the length of his rule, he saw a vision of Basilides inside the temple. After seeing this specter, Vespasian no longer feared his reign would be brief and end in assassination as Basilides means “King’s son.”
- Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 10.7.
- John S. Evans, The Four Kingdoms of Daniel: A Defense of the “Roman” Sequence with AD 70 Fulfillment, (USA: Xulon Press, 2004), 407.
- As stated above, these horns may also be Roman governors or client kings. Vespasian was once the governor of a province in Africa. After the Emperor Nero’s death and before Vespasian’s rise to power, three Caesars were killed in one year. These three men, Galba, Otho and Vitellius were also all governors of Roman provinces immediately before becoming Caesar. Galba was the governor of Spain, Otho was the governor of Portugal, and Vitellius was the governor of lower Germany. Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 10.4; 7.11; 8.3; 9.7.
- It is also possible that this verse foretells of the Neronic persecution of the A.D. 64. During this time, Christians were fed to dogs, set on fire and crucified. Though the exact duration of this persecution is not known, it is possible that this persecution may have extended three and a half years until the Gallic revolt. Over time many Romans became sympathetic to the harsh way in which Christians were being treated, and the public began to resent the young emperor for having sanctioned these executions. Perhaps this persecution ended in January of A.D. 68 at the start of the revolt in Gaul? This revolt weakened Nero’s grip on Rome, and the populace became increasingly defiant. Sensing the increasing loss of public loyalty, Nero may have ceased Christian executions so as not to increase public displeasure while catering to his concerns of being deposed. The duration between the start of the Neronic persecution in July of A.D. 64 until the Gallic revolt in A.D. 68 is almost exactly three and a half years. Tacitus Annals 55.44.
- Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars 11.5.
- Midrash Rabbah Lamentations Proems 25.
- Duncan W. McKenzie, Ph.D., The Antichrist and the Second Coming: A Preterist Examination Volume 1: Daniel and 2 Thessalonians (USA: Xulon Press, 2009), 118.
- Hersh Golwurm, History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era, ArtScroll History Series, eds., Nosson Scherman and Meir Zlotowitz (Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1982), 200-201. Cited in Duncan W. McKenzie, Ph.D., The Antichrist and the Second Coming: A Preterist Examination Volume 1: Daniel and 2 Thessalonians (USA: Xulon Press, 2009), 119.
- Sulpicius Severus Chronica 2:30.7.
- Eusebius The History of the Church 3.12.
- Or perhaps this death was literal? Maybe the beast did not fully die until the death of Vespasian? As the emperor of Rome, Vespasian is the human embodiment of the beast. As is noted in the commentary on Revelation, the beast is a label given to both Rome and its emperor. In other words, the emperor is also called the beast in this book. And as is also the case in Revelation when the beast is said to die with Nero (Revelation 13:3), perhaps the beast also ultimately died with Vespasian, its tenth and final horn? For strong historical and Biblical evidence that Jesus also manifested himself at the death of Vespasian see The Historical Appearance of Christ at the Death of the Beast Fulfills 2 Thessalonians 2:8 and Revelation 19:19-20.